In view of Energy Transition taking place in India , requirement of adding new pumped storage plants and new hydro power plants is being realized in the country.
Several Pumped Storage plants sites are being investigated in various states such as Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and other states. Several Mega Hydropower projects in Arunachal Pradesh are being revived through CPSUs after decade long inaction in Private Sector.
- Revised Guidelines of CEA for Hydropower and Pumped Storage Projects
Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has come out with revised guidelines for preparation of detailed project reports of pumped storage projects and hydro power projects. CEA’s concurrence of the DPR is an important regulatory requirement as per Indian Electricity Act 2003.
The following Documents are available on CEA Website (https://cea.nic.in/hydro-project-appraisal-division/?lang=en):
- CEA Guidelines for Formulation of Detailed Project Reports for Hydro Electric Schemes– June 2023 , Version – 7.0
- CEA Guidelines for Formulation of Detailed Project Reports for Pumped Storage Schemes – June 2023 , Version – 2.0
- CEA Guidelines for Acceptance, Examination and Concurrence of Detailed Project Reports for Hydro Electric Schemes – June 2023 , Version – 7.0
- CEA Guidelines for Acceptance, Examination and Concurrence of Detailed Project Reports for Pumped Storage Schemes – June 2023 , Version – 2.0
It is to mention that Detailed Project report of Hydropower projects/Pumped Storage projects which is a comprehensive document requiring specific knowledge and inputs from different specializations in the field of Hydropower, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Geology, Geotechnical, Hydrology, Hydraulics and other fields.
Detailed Project Report of Hydropower project/Pumped Storage Project as appraised by CEA serves as base technical and design document for project implementation.
- Pre-DPR Chapters : Submission and Appraisal
The DPR process has been organized into pre-DPR chapters and DPR chapters. In pre-DPR chapters, the following 14 aspects have been covered:
- Hydrological Aspects (Appraised by Hydrology Dte., CWC)
- Geological Aspects (Appraised by GSI)
- Foundation Engineering and Seismic Aspects & Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Aspects (Appraised by FE&SA Dte, CWC)
- Power Potential Aspects (Appraised by HPA Div., CEA )
- Project General Layout and Planning Aspects (Appraised by HCD Dte., CWC and HE&TD Div., CEA)
- Construction Material & Geotechnical Aspects (Appraised by CSMRS)
- Inter- State Aspects (Appraised by ISM Dte, CWC)
- ROR/Storage Aspects (Appraised by Standing Technical Committee, HPP&I Div., CEA)
- Design of Transmission System Aspects (up to pooling point) (Appraised by PSP&A Div, CEA)
- Dam/Barrage Design Aspects (Appraised by CMDD/BCD Dte. , CWC )
- Gates / HM Design Aspects (Appraised by Gates Design Dte. , CWC)
- Instrumentation Aspects (Appraised by Instrumentation Dte., CWC)
- Hydel Civil Design Aspects (Appraised by HCD Dte, CWC)
- E&M Design Aspects (Appraised by HE&TD Div, CEA)
These pre-DPR chapters are to be prepared by the Developer and progressively got cleared from respective divisions in CEA, CWC, GSI and CSRMS. The appraising departments for different pre-DPR chapters are listed in Italics above.
A positive approach in appraisal of above pre-DPR chapters is that the investigations , planning, design and appraisal processes are taking place in parallel , thus allowing any course correction in the process of completing pre-DPR chapters.
It may be noted that pre-DPR chapters, based upon actual data and investigations take considerable time (up to 3 Years in certain cases) and therefore a consistent pace of carrying out field work as well as the planning and design work and consultation processes is required to be maintained.
- DPR Stage Chapters : Submission and Appraisal
Once the Pre-DPR chapters are appraised by various groups in CEA/CWC/CSRMS/GSI as above , the following balance aspects of the DPR are submitted and appraised.
- BoQ of E&M works (HE&TD CEA)
- Cost of E&M and Misc Works (HPA CEA)
- Phasing of E&M and Misc. works (HPA CEA)
- Cost of Transmission Works upto Pooling Point (PSPA CEA)
- Phasing of Transmission Works upto Pooling Point (PSPA CEA)
- Legal aspects (Legal Division , CEA)
- Construction Power Aspects (HPA CEA)
- Construction Schedule Aspects (Civil Design Secretariat, CEA)
- Plant Planning (CMC CWC)
- Civil quantities (Civil Design Directorate, CEA)
- Civil Cost (CA–HWF, CWC)
- Phasing of Civil Works (Civil Design Directorate, CEA)
- Financial & Commercial aspects (F&CA, CEA)
The DPR stage aspects are generally appraised at fast pace within six months’ time.
- Structure of the Compiled DPR Document
Considering the above process of examination of pre-DPR and DPR chapters , the DPR is organized in various volumes for ease of compilation as different chapters are contributed by different specialists of DPR Consultants/Project Developers.
|Justification of project from power supply angle
|Inter-State / Inter-National Aspects
|Surveys & Investigations (includes Geology and construction material aspects as well as various field and lab tests)
|Power Potential Studies & Installed Capacity
|Volume IV A
|Design of Civil Structures (includes CMDD, HCD & HM Aspects of design)
|Volume IV B
|Electrical and Mechanical Designs
|Transmission of Power and Communication facilities
|Volume V A
|Construction Programme & Plant Planning
|Environmental & Ecological Aspects
|Volume V B
|Allocation of Cost
|Future Utilization of Buildings
|Clearances / Inputs
Chapter I, to Chapter XI of the DPR represent the pre-DPR aspects to be appraised in CEA. Chapter XII to Chapter XXI represent the subsequent phase of DPR Appraisal.
- Important Appendices given in CEA Guidelines
Out of Eight Appendices , given in the CEA Guidelines document (Version 7.0, June 23), the following Appendices need to be mentioned specifically:
Appendix-3 provides Suggestive Measures to Reduce the tariff of the project at DPR stage.
Appendix-4 provides Measures to be adopted to avert flooding of Power House.
Appendix-5 provides Key preventive measures for disaster management in case of dam failure or sudden release of water.
Appendix-7 provides Guidelines for Budgetary Support towards cost of Enabling Infrastructure i.e., roads/bridges etc.
Appendix-8 provides Guidelines for Budgetary Support for Flood Moderation/Storage HE Projects.
In addition to above , CEA has recently issued guidelines on measures to prevent/monitor Land Slide Hazards at Dam Site and in the Reservoir Rim.
The Recommendations given in Appendix-4 (Measures to avoid flooding of Power Houses) , Appendix-5 (disaster management and dam safety aspects) and recent guideline on Land Slides Hazards need serious examination and are to be suitably built in the DPR/Project Designs.
In view of Climate change, and recent enactment of Dam Safety Act and keeping in view the Disaster Management Act, the design and operation aspects of the Dam for Hydroelectric projects require more careful considerations.
- Guidelines for DPR of Pumped Storage Projects
The Guidelines for preparation and Appraisal of DPR of Pumped Storage Projects are quite similar to guidelines for Hydroelectric Projects.
However , as per the guidelines, the cost aspects of Pumped Storage projects are not appraised in CEA, if the same is allotted to Developer on Competitive Tariff basis.
It can be summarized that the DPR Investigation, Planning, Design, Preparation and Appraisal Processes are inter disciplinary in nature and involve multiple type of expertise. Therefore , CEA has made the process integrated and forward looking so that project Developers are able to complete the process in shortest possible period of about three years and take the project forward for execution. Hydro and Pumped Storage Projects , besides DPR Clearance , also require other clearances of equal importance such as environment , forest and land acquisition.